A number of operations have supported access to safe water sources and sanitation services, and the better management of water resources, including giving 4.2 million rural people an improved water supply (from 2013). A $250 million urban water supply and sanitation project is to increase the sustainable water supply and sanitation services in Addis Ababa and selected cities, providing one million people in urban areas with improved water sources, 2.7 million with improved water supply services, and 200,000 with sanitation services. A follow-on $445 million IDA credit was approved in March 2017. Under its CPF, the Bank continues to support the government’s goal of providing 100% national potable water supply coverage by 2020.
Some scholars have come to the conclusion that material progress and prosperity, as manifested in continuous income growth at both the individual and the national level, provide the indispensable foundation for sustaining any kind of morality. This argument was explicitly given by Adam Smith in his Theory of Moral Sentiments, and has more recently been developed by Harvard economist Benjamin Friedman in his book The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth.
Portfolio income can come from multiple sources – interest/bond coupons, stock dividends, financial strategies including derivatives and capital growth. Each offers some cash flow and some also offer potential capital gain with some risk from liquidity and volatile prices. In this low-yield environment, many investors rely too heavily on cash flows and to pursue this are venturing further into riskier areas than they’d normally consider.