India became the world's third-largest producer of electricity in 2013 with a 4.8% global share in electricity generation, surpassing Japan and Russia.[224] By the end of calendar year 2015, India had an electricity surplus with many power stations idling for want of demand.[225] The utility electricity sector had an installed capacity of 303 GW as of May 2016 of which thermal power contributed 69.8%, hydroelectricity 15.2%, other sources of renewable energy 13.0%, and nuclear power 2.1%.[226] India meets most of its domestic electricity demand through its 106 billion tonnes of proven coal reserves.[227] India is also rich in certain alternative sources of energy with significant future potential such as solar, wind and biofuels (jatropha, sugarcane). India's dwindling uranium reserves stagnated the growth of nuclear energy in the country for many years.[228] Recent discoveries in the Tummalapalle belt may be among the top 20 natural uranium reserves worldwide,[229][230][231][needs update] and an estimated reserve of 846,477 metric tons (933,081 short tons) of thorium[232] – about 25% of world's reserves – are expected to fuel the country's ambitious nuclear energy program in the long-run. The Indo-US nuclear deal has also paved the way for India to import uranium from other countries.[233]
Based on my initial experience of passive income, I feel real that real estate is best vehicle to build long-term investment. I live in Los Angeles and was able to cash flow my first rental property. What are you thoughts about starting out to build a passive income portfolio? I have utilized Lendingclub, online savings, and a small dividend/bond portfolio.
The age old argument of total return versus income has been, incorrectly imo, categorized as an either or proposition. We are going to do both. Right now I have a lot cash in an on line money market. I also have investments in 2 passive Index funds in a taxable account. We then have substantial 401ks/IRA’s which we won’t touch for at least 10 years. My wife will continue to max out her sep and we will continue to invest in the index funds although with a smaller amount. We have already factored that in. I looked at how to cut into the monthly deficit. Here is what I observed.
Since 2000, Indian companies have expanded overseas, investing FDI and creating jobs outside India. From 2006 to 2010, FDI by Indian companies outside India amounted to 1.34 per cent of its GDP.[311] Indian companies have deployed FDI and started operations in the United States,[312] Europe and Africa.[313] The Indian company Tata is the United Kingdom's largest manufacturer and private-sector employer.[314][315]
The rupee was linked to the British pound from 1927 to 1946, and then to the US dollar until 1975 through a fixed exchange rate. It was devalued in September 1975 and the system of fixed par rate was replaced with a basket of four major international currencies: the British pound, the US dollar, the Japanese yen and the Deutsche mark.[324] In 1991, after the collapse of its largest trading partner, the Soviet Union, India faced the major foreign exchange crisis and the rupee was devalued by around 19% in two stages on 1 and 2 July. In 1992, a Liberalized Exchange Rate Mechanism (LERMS) was introduced. Under LERMS, exporters had to surrender 40 percent of their foreign exchange earnings to the RBI at the RBI-determined exchange rate; the remaining 60% could be converted at the market-determined exchange rate. In 1994, the rupee was convertible on the current account, with some capital controls.[325]
Indian Railways is the fourth-largest rail network in the world, with a track length of 114,500 kilometres (71,100 mi) and 7,172 stations. This government-owned-and-operated railway network carried an average of 23 million passengers a day, and over a billion tonnes of freight in 2013.[238] India has a coastline of 7,500 kilometres (4,700 mi) with 13 major ports and 60 operational non-major ports, which together handle 95% of the country's external trade by volume and 70% by value (most of the remainder handled by air).[239] Nhava Sheva, Mumbai is the largest public port, while Mundra is the largest private sea port.[240] The airport infrastructure of India includes 125 airports,[241] of which 66 airports are licensed to handle both passengers and cargo.[242]
If you have a blog or other type of site, you can build affiliate links to different services on the website. Many people use Amazon as an affiliate partner. For example, if you are a beauty blogger writing about different products, you can set up Amazon affiliate links on your blog so that whenever someone buys the product you mention on Amazon, you receive a percentage of the sale. Amazon is not the only affiliate partner out there. Here is good, in-depth information on affiliate marketing. 
I’m a 45 year old business owner who also has focussed on diversifying my income streams. I have a short term vacation rental in Florida that I bought for $390k in 2012 and net rental income for the last three years has been growing steadily. 2015 I am at $70k gross right now but should end up at $80-85k with net around $45k plus we use the place about 35 nights a year.
Which all goes back to my point – since companies change in a lot of unpredictable ways, it makes more sense for passive income to just ride the market by investing in a Total Domestic Stock Market, Total Bond Market, and Total International index funds, with allocations that depend on your goals and time horizon. For income, withdraw 4% or less, depending on what research you believe, and you’ve got a pretty low risk strategy.
People's lives these days are so fast paced that multitasking has become the need of the hour. That explains why podcasts have suddenly become so popular; they allow people to get information or entertainment while they're in the middle of commuting, working out, cooking, or something else. Podcasts are easier to create than YouTube videos and can be shared just as easily on iTunes. Just select a topic that you're well-informed or passionate about, and start a podcast around it, it's that simple.
This is a venture that is growing rapidly. You can create videos in just about any area that you like — music, tutorials, opinions, comedy, movie reviews — anything you want . . . then put them on YouTube. You can then attach Google AdSense to the videos, which will overlay your videos with automatic ads. When viewers click on those ads, you will earn money from AdSense.
The information technology (IT) industry in India consists of two major components: IT services and business process outsourcing (BPO). The sector has increased its contribution to India's GDP from 1.2% in 1998 to 7.5% in 2012.[213] According to NASSCOM, the sector aggregated revenues of US$147 billion in 2015, where export revenue stood at US$99 billion and domestic at US$48 billion, growing by over 13%.[213]
When withdrawing money to live on, I don’t care how many stock shares I own or what the dividends are – I care about how much MONEY I’m able to safely withdraw from my total portfolio without running out before I die. A lot of academics have analyzed total market returns based on indices and done Monte Carlo simulations of portfolios with various asset allocations, and have come up with percentages that you can have reasonable statistical confidence of being safe.
Attributable to compensation for services performed in Connecticut or income from a business, trade, profession, or occupation carried on in Connecticut (including income derived directly or indirectly by athletes, entertainers, or performing artists from closed-circuit and cable television transmissions of irregularly scheduled events if such transmissions are received or exhibited within Connecticut);
"Rental properties provide a source of passive income and the possibility of overall appreciation of the property with tax advantages," Lou Cannataro, partner at Cannataro Park Avenue Financial, tells Bustle. "Our generation and those to follow will not have pensions, and social security is 'iffy,' at best. Rental properties can provide that constant income (people always need a place to live) that is not directly tied to the marketplace and one cannot outlive."
any income you received related to a business, trade, profession, or occupation previously carried on in New York State, including but not limited to covenants not to compete and termination agreements (see TSB-M-10(9)I, Income Received by a Nonresident Related to a Business, Trade, Profession, or Occupation Previously Carried on Within New York State); and
What I did: I first identified my favorite places in the world to live: San Francisco, Honolulu, Paris, Amsterdam, New York City, and Lake Tahoe. I then looked up the median rent and housing prices for each city. Then I factored in private education costs for two kids to be conservative given I may not have two kids and public schools are often good enough. After calculating all vital costs, I then did a self-assessment of how happy I was making $50,000, $100,000, $150,000, $200,000, $250,000, $350,000, $500,000, and $750,000. I decided working 20 hours a week making $200,000 a year is the best income balance for maximum happiness. 
Mining contributed $63 billion (3% of GDP) and employed 20.14 million people (5% of the workforce) in 2016.[153] India's mining industry was the fourth-largest producer of minerals in the world by volume, and eighth-largest producer by value in 2009.[268] In 2013, it mined and processed 89 minerals, of which four were fuel, three were atomic energy minerals, and 80 non-fuel.[269] The government-owned public sector accounted for 68% of mineral production by volume in 2011–12.[270]

Creating multiple streams of income does not mean get a second job to supplement your current income. A second job does not provide you with the flexibility and freedom to increase your income. In fact, it can hurt you when you think about it. You are trading time for money and in the long run, you lose. Instead, create something that will allow you to give yourself a pay raise when you need and want it. 
​If you pay your bills with a credit card make sure it offers cash back rewards. You can let your rewards accrue for a while and possibly put the easy money you earned toward another passive income venture! (Be sure that the card you select doesn’t have an annual fee or you might be cancelling out your rewards). Check out this list of the best Cashback Rewards Cards.
I just can’t seem to get my head around creating my own online product. When you talk about it, you make it sound like its mostly just about putting in the time and plugging away at it. Problem is I can never seem to come up with any ideas for a site or product that seem remotely unique or compelling or that I have any special knowledge about. The stuff I do know about is pretty commodity type knowledge that can mostly be found on thousands of sites on the internet already. Any tips on discovering what your “unique angle” is? I mean, you have a pretty compelling and somewhat unique personal story of working on wall street and then walking away at a young age.
However, until we get another reset in valuations (I’m calculating a 40% to 50% correction is justified ), I’ve moved largely to the sidelines. Beginning in July 2013, I began slowly reducing equity exposure and am now sitting firm at 40% with the balance in various forms of 5 yr cd’s and short duration bonds. This is down from over 60% when I ramped up to take advantage of the March 2009 lows.
That’s a nice read! I love your many tangible ways mentioned to make passive income unlike certain people trying to recruit others by mentioning network marketing and trying to get them to join up and sell products like Amway, Avon, Mary Kay, Cutco or 5Linx. People get sucked into wealth and profits and become influenced joiners from the use pressure tactics.
That $200,000 a year might sound like a lot to you, but the median home price in San Francisco is roughly $1.6 million or almost eight times our annual passive income. For a family of three in 2018, the Department of Housing and Urban Development declared that income of $105,700 or below was "low income." Therefore, I consider us firmly in the middle class.
Jump up ^ George Forster (1798), A journey from Bengal to England: through the northern part of India, Kashmire, Afghanistan, and Persia, and into Russia, by the Caspian-Sea, R. Faulder, ... A society of Moultan Hindoos, which has long been established in Baku, contributes largely to the circulation of its commerce; and with the Armenians they may be accounted the principal merchants of Shirwan ...
The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) uses the following definition: "Income is increases in economic benefits during the accounting period in the form of inflows or enhancements of assets or decreases of liabilities that result in increases in equity, other than those relating to contributions from equity participants." [F.70] (IFRS Framework).

hey, help me out if you can. I did some research sometime back on generating income from the internet and came across a program that reviewers found very accessible and legit. The program’s name was in German and it totally escapes me, it started with an N, like, Nietsche or something that looked similar to that word. The creator, his package include how-to videos. Do you know what i am talking about?
* I use Personal Capital to track all my finances in one place. It’s much easier to use their free software to follow 28 accounts on one platform than to log into various accounts to check my balances. They’ve also got great tools for x-raying your portfolio for excessive fees, recommending a more optimized asset allocation, and planning for retirement with their Retirement Planner.

I found this to be a fascinating and most helpful book. It was so motivating I'm already working on three new streams of income, and about to start a fourth. Forget net worth! Cash flow is much more important, particularly if you're retired. Only one slight criticism of the book. It's a bit dated, but those few parts make little difference to its overall value. If you're currently struggling with how you're going to survive after you retire, try Allen's approach. It will open your eyes.
I’m on board with having more than one source of income, but I definitely want to make my “extra” income as passive as possible. I don’t want to end up pushing myself to always earn more, more, more and never enjoy the life I have. Having said that, it’s nice to have the security blanket. My blog doesn’t earn much, but I also know it could earn more if I really needed it to. It also helps to l

Other scholars suggest trading from India to West Asia and Eastern Europe was active between the 14th and 18th centuries.[62][63][64] During this period, Indian traders settled in Surakhani, a suburb of greater Baku, Azerbaijan. These traders built a Hindu temple, which suggests commerce was active and prosperous for Indians by the 17th century.[65][66][67][68]

2) Find Out What You Are Good At. Everybody is good at something, be it investing, playing an instrument, playing a sport, communications, writing, art, dance and so forth. You should also list several things that interest you most. If you can combine your interest plus expertise, you should be able to monetize your skills. A tennis player can teach tennis for $65 an hour. A writer can pen her first novel. A finance buff can invest in stocks. A singer can record his first song. The more interests and skills you have, the higher chance you can create something that can provide passive income down the road.
Increase in income Income per capita has been increasing steadily in almost every country.[5] Many factors contribute to people having a higher income such as education,[6] globalisation and favorable political circumstances such as economic freedom and peace. Increase in income also tends to lead to people choosing to work less hours. Developed countries (defined as countries with a "developed economy") have higher incomes as opposed to developing countries tending to have lower incomes.

We’ve discussed how to get started building passive income for financial freedom in a previous post. Now I’d like to rank the various passive income streams based on risk, return, and feasibility. The rankings are somewhat subjective, but they are born from my own real life experiences attempting to generate multiple types of passive income sources over the past 16 years.


Connecting two entities is another great way to make extra money by spending less energy. So can always have an agreement with some business entity to give clients on referral basis and earn a commission. I recently hired a designer for some work and I asked him if he knows someone who can PRINT the designs for me. He referred me to his friend who done the printing work. I am sure he must have got some cut for the referral and there is nothing wrong in it. Its a smart way of earning money.
If you want to top up your income without taking on a strenuous second job, your first port of call should be your very own skillset. If you have a natural talent that could help others, you have an instant “in” to easy money. Whether you’re a gifted guitarist, mathematical genius or speak a second language, almost any talent can be turned into cash. Offering one-to-one coaching is a flexible way to make a solid hourly rate, and enables you to take on as much or as little work as you wish. Find local clients by placing adverts in the library, schools and community bulletin boards and share your talent in exchange for a fee.
​I’ve been into home décor lately and I had to turn to Etsy to find exactly what I wanted. I ended up purchasing digital files of the artwork I wanted printed out! The seller had made a bunch of wall art, digitized, and listed it on Etsy for instant download. There are other popular digital files on Etsy as well such as monthly planners. If you’re into graphic design this could be an amazing passive income idea for you.
He asked that newsreel cameras film the last portion of the address, concerning the Second Bill of Rights. This footage was believed lost until it was uncovered in 2008 in South Carolina by Michael Moore while researching the film Capitalism: A Love Story.[5] The footage shows Roosevelt's Second Bill of Rights address in its entirety as well as a shot of the eight rights printed on a sheet of paper.[6][7]
"But for our jobs, for how we make money, I think many of us — most of us — have one way we make money. It can be very risky. I've really come to believe, and have done a lot of research over the years, that one of the best ways that we can create real, legitimate professional stability for ourselves is by choosing to cultivate multiple income streams.
I’m still a big fan of InfoBarrel, Eric, even though I haven’t been able to write much. With what I am earning there, I’ve actually shifted to outsourcing quite a bit of content…call it a “respite” from writing, I had just needed a break. Even if one pays $5-$10 per article, IF the keywords are researched properly and effectively, one can easily turn that one article and earn several hundred off of it in it’s lifetime. Right now, one of my friends had written a single article that, already this month, has earned over $83 on InfoBarrel. Not too shabby at all…
First of all, let's face the facts. Working 9 to 6, you won't have any time during the day. If you choose to have a second job during the evening hours, you'd get burnt out very easily. Chances are that you might under-perform in both the jobs. I recommend having a side business rather than a second job. Some investment of money and time would be required at first. I have come up with a few options that would require less work from you but would be a decent second source of income.
Awesome article…if this does not give somebody a clear roadmap, they probably were never going to get there in the first place! I’m kind of like you trying to figure out where to place “new” money and maturing CD’s in this low interest environment. Rates have to go up eventually…I dream of the days again where you can build a laddered bond portfolio paying 8%. I plan for a 5.5% blended rate of return, with big downside protection.
Some good writing here! I am a realtor myself and frequently get in touch with clients that consider buying a realty estate a conservative of investing. I once heard of a transport company in Vienna, Austria, which focused their entire profit on buying eventually every house available in the downtown for about 80 years. That must be some of a passive income!
A few people who started their own YouTube channel when the video-sharing site was in its nascent stage are now millionaires. Now that YouTube has become immensely popular with hordes of people running their own channels, making a million dollars is considerably more difficult, but earning a respectable sum of money is still possible. As always, you'll need to find a niche that isn't yet saturated and focus on making engaging videos around it. Once you start raking up views and subscriptions, the money will start flowing in with minimum effort on your part.
And real estate does more than just track inflation – it throws off income (which is important to some people and useful to most). And while your underlying asset is appreciating, the income also grows as rents increase over time. And if you make smart and well-timed purchases, both rents and asset values can increase at well above the rate of inflation.
According to 2011 census data, India has about 330 million houses and 247 million households. The household size in India has dropped in recent years, the 2011 census reporting 50% of households have four or fewer members, with an average 4.8 members per household including surviving grandparents.[331][332] These households produced a GDP of about $1.7 trillion.[333] Consumption patterns note: approximately 67% of households use firewood, crop residue or cow-dung cakes for cooking purposes; 53% do not have sanitation or drainage facilities on premises; 83% have water supply within their premises or 100 metres (330 ft) from their house in urban areas and 500 metres (1,600 ft) from the house in rural areas; 67% of the households have access to electricity; 63% of households have landline or mobile telephone service; 43% have a television; 26% have either a two- or four-wheel motor vehicle. Compared to 2001, these income and consumption trends represent moderate to significant improvements.[331] One report in 2010 claimed that high-income households outnumber low-income households.[334]
I’m a 45 year old business owner who also has focussed on diversifying my income streams. I have a short term vacation rental in Florida that I bought for $390k in 2012 and net rental income for the last three years has been growing steadily. 2015 I am at $70k gross right now but should end up at $80-85k with net around $45k plus we use the place about 35 nights a year.
If the income is for personal services performed partly in the United States and partly outside the United States, you must make an accurate allocation of income for services performed in the United States. In most cases, other than certain fringe benefits, you make this allocation on a time basis. That is, U.S. source income is the amount that results from multiplying the total amount of pay by the fraction of days in which services were performed in the U.S. This fraction is determined by dividing the number of days services are performed in the United States by the total number of days of service for which the compensation is paid.
In 2011, the Indian government concluded that most spending fails to reach its intended recipients, as the large and inefficient bureaucracy consumes budgets.[381] India's absence rates are among the worst in the world; one study found that 25% of public sector teachers and 40% of government-owned public-sector medical workers could not be found at the workplace.[382][383] Similarly, there are many issues facing Indian scientists, with demands for transparency, a meritocratic system, and an overhaul of the bureaucratic agencies that oversee science and technology.[384]

If you’ve been passionately collecting something over the years, this may well be your route to extra income. Be it comic books, records, stamps or even vintage clothing you picked up from second-hand stores, the chances are likely that there is someone out there who shares your passion. Whilst sites like eBay and Amazon are ideal for generic selling, if your collection consists of more niche items, you may need to use a more specific platform.


And real estate does more than just track inflation – it throws off income (which is important to some people and useful to most). And while your underlying asset is appreciating, the income also grows as rents increase over time. And if you make smart and well-timed purchases, both rents and asset values can increase at well above the rate of inflation.
In expensive cities like San Francisco and New York City, net rental yields can fall as low as 2%. This is a sign that there is a lot of liquidity buying property for property appreciation, and not so much for income generation. This is a riskier proposition than buying property based on rental income. In inexpensive cities, such as those in the Midwest, net rental yields can easily be in the range of 8% – 12%, although appreciation may be slower.
Who doesn’t like some down and dirty affiliate fees?!  Especially if you realize it can be even easier to make money this way than with an ebook.  After all, you simply need to concentrate on pumping out some content for your own site and getting the traffic in, often via Google or social media.  Unsurprisingly, most people can enjoy their first affiliate sale within 30 days of starting a blog.  Continue reading >

With passive income sources, you can go long periods of time without doing work, yet still earn income. In some cases, that income can expand without much additional input from you. For example, if I build a website in 5 hours and after a month, it has only made $50, my time to that point was worth $10/hour. It doesn’t stop there, however. In a year, if the site has earned $600, the value of those initial 5 hours grows to $120/hour. As time goes on, that number can continue to grow indefinitely.

"You know what they say: 'Don't work for your money. Make your money work for you,'" Jenna Goudreau, Managing Editor of Make It, CNBC's new site focusing on all things money, tells Bustle. "That's exactly the goal with passive income: By being smart about the resources you already have, an initial investment of effort can eventually earn you money while you sleep."
Unemployment in India is characterised by chronic (disguised) unemployment. Government schemes that target eradication of both poverty and unemployment – which in recent decades has sent millions of poor and unskilled people into urban areas in search of livelihoods – attempt to solve the problem by providing financial assistance for starting businesses, honing skills, setting up public sector enterprises, reservations in governments, etc. The decline in organised employment, due to the decreased role of the public sector after liberalisation, has further underlined the need for focusing on better education and created political pressure for further reforms.[354][355] India's labour regulations are heavy, even by developing country standards, and analysts have urged the government to abolish or modify them in order to make the environment more conducive for employment generation.[356][357] The 11th five-year plan has also identified the need for a congenial environment to be created for employment generation, by reducing the number of permissions and other bureaucratic clearances required.[358] Inequalities and inadequacies in the education system have been identified as an obstacle, which prevents the benefits of increased employment opportunities from reaching all sectors of society.[359]
It is our duty now to begin to lay the plans and determine the strategy for the winning of a lasting peace and the establishment of an American standard of living higher than ever before known. We cannot be content, no matter how high that general standard of living may be, if some fraction of our people—whether it be one-third or one-fifth or one-tenth—is ill-fed, ill-clothed, ill-housed, and insecure.

There are many success stories you’ll run into of what it takes to generate multiple streams of income. However, one of the most important tips is to take on multiple clients. One client being your income source is bad news. They could voluntarily or involuntarily leave you high and dry. For instance, their business may begin to suffer and they no longer have the funds to pay you. Well, that is your income stream; gone without warning.
The doctor or lawyer, for instance, could use her or his income to invest in a medical start-up or buy shares of medical companies he understands such as Johnson & Johnson. Over time, the nature of compounding, dollar cost averaging, and reinvesting dividends can result in her or his portfolio generating substantial passive income. The downside is that it can take decades to achieve enough to truly improve your standard of living. However, it is still the surest path to wealth based on the historical performance of business ownership and stocks.
The engineering industry of India includes its growing car, motorcycle and scooters industry, and productivity machinery such as tractors. India manufactured and assembled about 18 million passenger and utility vehicles in 2011, of which 2.3 million were exported.[179] India is the largest producer and the largest market for tractors, accounting for 29% of global tractor production in 2013.[179][180] India is the 12th-largest producer and 7th-largest consumer of machine tools.[179]

If you highly educated and interested in working in the education industry, you can also create educational videos and courses and sell online. If you are expert and good at teaching, you can make relevant videos and sell online to companies like Udemy.com, Lynda.com or skillshare.com. There are lots of interested students who want to learn and are willing to pay for the courses. You can tie up with such websites and sell your courses online.
Freelancing is basically a kind of work where people are self-employed as they take projects and some piece of work from some company or person but they are not part of that company or organization. As opposed to a regular salary job where the payments are fixed and monthly, freelancing projects/assignments are paid per case basis. Hence a freelancer is not supposed to work full time for the company/person, instead, they just need to finish only a specific task. Freelancing can be a full-time career for many professionals. And the most amazing part of freelancing is that it is not limited to a particular domain, from content to coding, freelance jobs are available in every domain. In India, Freelancing is not considered as a highly paid job, but that’s not true. Your earning capacity depends on your quality and quantity of work. If you want to earn more apart from your full-time salaried job, freelancing can be a great option for you. There are many online websites where you can find a freelancing job. You just need to give time to select and get a good project/assignment.

This has become a very fast growing business. One can make videos in an area that you like — it can be in music, tutorials in any field such as makeup tutorials, drawing tutorials, vlogging and many more like these, reviewing, unboxing experience, reactions, comedy etc., anything which you think people are going to like. Upload these video on YouTube. One can then attach Google AdSense code to the videos. This will overlay the videos with automatic ads. When the viewers on your videos will click on those ads, one will earn money from AdSense.


When I started building my architecture-related business in 2008, I made my first dollar through advertising. I’d spent a lot of time and money building the site and getting traffic. Then one day I threw an ad on the site one day, and I made $1.18. Sure, I could find that much under my couch cushions—but that’s not the point! The point is that I was able to build something online, put an ad up, and make money without having to do anything. I learned it was possible, and it motivated me to move forward.


The first thing to do is figure out what you are good at and more importantly, what you enjoy doing. You may be able to type extremely fast. Maybe you have excellent negotiation skills. You may be great walking dogs and enjoy the needed exercise. Maybe you have a knack for growing gardens that homeowners in your neighbourhood covet. Tons of people are out there who do not possess the skills you have. You may have a needed skill that can generate a lucrative income in your spare time.
The 1872 census revealed that 91.3% of the population of the region constituting present-day India resided in villages.[111] This was a decline from the earlier Mughal era, when 85% of the population resided in villages and 15% in urban centers under Akbar's reign in 1600.[112] Urbanisation generally remained sluggish in British India until the 1920s, due to the lack of industrialisation and absence of adequate transportation. Subsequently, the policy of discriminating protection (where certain important industries were given financial protection by the state), coupled with the Second World War, saw the development and dispersal of industries, encouraging rural–urban migration, and in particular the large port cities of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras grew rapidly. Despite this, only one-sixth of India's population lived in cities by 1951.[113]
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